Loss aversion […]: Translated to chart-making, it means that there is a “tendency to avoid losing data at any cost”. The chart below shows you the Money Income Of Households as published.
Take the above chart, for instance: does it make any sense to add those nine series to a single chart?
Remove irrelevant data series and you risk a mutiny on the Bounty, even if relevant trends are easier to detect. It is absurd, but very human.
So, how can you give the users all the data they expect while keeping the chart clean and readable?
The following article shows how to create Heatmaps in Excel 2003, for Excel 2007 & 2010 please see the updated article “Heatmap Tables with Excel – Revisited”
This Heatmap Table shows you the revenues and the discounts of a company over the course of one year per product group. The size of a bubble shows the revenue made in a particular month and the bubble color shows the discount rate given. The discount rate has been encoded as a range of green colors, ranging from a light green, for low discounts to a dark green for high discounts. The years and product totals are shown at the right and bottom as an integrated part of the table.
Tufte often talks about the integration of number, images, and word, and I think he’s quite right. A way archive this in Excel is to integrate charts into tables, so called graphical tables, a very effective means to archive More Information Per Pixel. I already wrote about graphical tables here, here, and here.
This bumps chart shows you the English Premier League 2007 – 2008. It allows you to highlight and compare two teams by clicking a team in in the table or a line in the bumps charts.
Interactively highlighting a data series in a large data set is very powerful. All lines in the data set are set to light Gray to show you the big picture and the patterns and general tends in the data set. Once you have identified an interesting data series you click it and we highlight it with a bright, saturated color. This has the effect of bringing it into the foreground and allows the user to see the details in the context of the other data series.
As a bumps chart has the lines equally spaced on the value axis you can put an Excel table next to the chart that serves as a legend on one side, and as a detailed ranking table on the other side.
So I picked up Jon’s idea and tried to combine it with ParamLink. In The Missing Link I introduced the (free) ParamLink Add-In. It implements a new hyperlink formula ParamLink(). When the hyperlink is followed the formula can set cell values or define names.
In financial report we are constantly comparing the actual numbers with our projections using variances.
A quick reminder
Absolute variance = Actual – Budget
Relative variance in % = (Actual – Budget) / Budget
Doing this over a report of even 10 lines requires row by row number comparison, and is not something which can be easily & quickly scanned. Showing the variances in a classical Excel charts is problematic, as you constantly have to go back and forth between the table and the chart to scan exact numbers and the variance tend in the chart.
In-Cell variance charts are a compact, data rich and efficient alternative.
To create in-cell variance charts you have basically three alternatives:
1. In-Cell Chart Using the REPT Function
Rolf Hichert presents a couple of years ago on his web site (German) a character based approach. The method got quite popular when it was first presented on the Juice Blog. The main idea is to create the bars repeating a character using the REPT function. The function REPT(“●”,5) returns “●●●●●”. The disadvantage of this approach is that you have to set up all the formulas and that don’t have a continuous scale. E.g. to show 15% you either show “●” or “●●”, but there is no way creating fractions of a character. One of the advantages of the rept approach is that the bars are automatically aligned in the grid. When you increase the row height, bars are still perfectly aligned with the numbers.
Click here to download the Excel file
2. In-Cell Chart Using MicroCharts
Another smart way to overcome the setup and scale problems of REPT is using MicroCharts. Charts are created from MicroCharts fonts including bars, line segments and pies. A chart is represented as text that is formatted with the MicroCharts fonts. Similar to the rept fuction charts, you can utilize all the rich Excel capabilities for MicroCharts that you would for normal text!:
- Text alignment
- Text orientation
- Font size
- Conditional formatting
- Automatic alignment when the row height changes
Unlike the rept function MicroCharts support continues scales value axis. The chart formatting is very similar to the options with standard Excel charts:
Hitesh Patel Winner of 2008 Excel Dashboard Competition used the Micro Bar Charts to visualize variances over areas and territories in a very cleanly presented table in his Pharmaceutical Sales Dashboard .
3. In-Cell Charts Aligning a regular Excel Chart in the Grid
A third approach is to use regular Excel bar charts:
The trick is to set chart area to transparent and to manually align them to the grid. The main problem with this method is that the setup of the chart can be very tedious. You will have to fiddle quite a while till the bars align perfrectly with the grid, and each time you change the row or column height width you have to readjust the chart area:
/* Style Definitions */
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
font-family:”Times New Roman”;
Update 06/28/2008: Jon added some insights how to handle variable rows and fourth approach for incell charts using graphical objects:
One problem arises when the number of rows covered by the chart is variable. When you have an update, you need to rely on VBA code to realign the chart, and this is not always reliable. To counter this (and to apply some “interesting” formatting requested by the client, I developed some VBA code that read values from each row and built chart using a series of rectangles and other shapes. These were aligned appropriately with the grid more simply and reliably than a chart would have been. A sample of this is shown in In Cell Charting with Shapes.
I ran into additional issues with another client who insisted that his worksheets be viewed at a zoom that filled the entire width of the screen. This has all kinds of negative issues, especially with charts. (And on my widescreen laptop, it needed a zoom of around 150%, so I had minimal rows visible. But a client is a client.) So I built some additional graphs based on Excel shapes, as illustrated in In Cell Bar Charts.
You could therefore add a fourth approach, though it isn’t accessible without code, and that is “Graphs using Graphical Objects”. This is after all how we all started with graphing data in second grade, with paper and crayons and perhaps a straightedge.
Extra tip: To further enrich your variance report with some historical context, provide the historical performance in an extra column as a sparkline:
Here the history of the Abortion data set
1) Jorge used some U.S. Census Bureau data (original Excel file) to visualize the abortion ratio as a small multiples chart,
2) In Small Multiples – Abortion Data 1980-2003, I have written about Jorge’s panel chart. I like the panel (small multiples) chart, but felt that it can be improved.
Here is a different view on the data set as a Graphical Table using MicroCharts. The Graphical Table is a hybrid between the panel (small multiples) chart and a plain table of numbers. It nicely integrates the numbers with small charts, so-called sparklines, in a table. The sparklines show you the trend of the abortions over the years and the in-cell bar charts give you a feel for the distribution over the age groups:
Jorge used some U.S. Census Bureau data (original Excel file) to visualize the abortion ratio as a small multiples chart.
I like this chart as I am a big fan of small multiples displays. They help us to understand the nature of multi-dimensional data.
Jorge asked for suggestions to improve his chart and I came up with these:
- The abortion ratio is calculated as the number of pregnancies that end in an abortion per 1000 pregnancies. I would put the definition of the ratio in the title or a footnote (Number of abortions per 1,000 live births). Most places where I have seen this data presented tend to do it in this way too, although my preference would be for a % format.
- I think that the data for Race, Marital Status and Age Group are actually 3 different stories. It took me several scans of the whole chart set to realize this. I would add some white space between the Age group charts, the Race and Martial Status charts, to make it clear that are comparing different variables.
- Jorge shows an integrated line chart for Marital State and for Race but a small multiples chart for Age Groups. For a more consistent chart reading I would use small multiples charts for all variables.
- The axes of the Percent Distribution bars are not labeled, and have no scale. This coupled with varying meaning of the color encoding is confusing. The percentage distribution data for the Age < 15 lies around the 1% level and so cannot be seen on this scale even though data does exist. We also cannot encode the way this measure also varies with time over the same period. In fact we miss the fact that for women over 25 years the percentage distribution is actually increasing.
- I’m not sure if you need to show the all age groups in the Age group charts as light Grey lines. I know that you want the reader to compare the current age group in the context of the other age groups but this exactly what the small multiples are for anyway.
I like Jorge’s idea of integrating the abortion ratio and abortion percentages, but I found having another group of small multiples provides a more consistent view. If we don’t have the percentage distribution numbers then we can easily draw the wrong conclusions about the data.
Here my small multiples chart for the Abortion by Age Groups:
[…] on a slide, you want to convey one message. your graph must NOT carry any information that can be interpreted differently than the point you are trying to make. the corollary is that in virtually all cases, you should display as little data points as possible: 1 if possible, 2 but no more than 3. If you need more than 3 data points, use handouts. […]
which is very much in line with what Seth Godin said in his famous post about Chart Rules:
No, the reason you put a chart in a presentation is to tell a story. A single story, one story per chart
Why should a presentation display as little data as possible? Why should a slide contain only one chart? I demand More Information Per Pixel. Why not have a data-rich chart in a slide – no, even a couple of charts to support my message?
My friend Rolf Hichert has a totally different design philosophy.
Components of good presentations slides:
- A clear message
- A clear title (should be a complete sentence, including units like K$)
- Each slide to conveys only one message
- More tables and charts to support the message
- Choose the right chart type
- Use arrows, color etc. to highlight the message
Look at this sample taken from Rolf’s web site:
The slide has a clear title that conveys one message: "Further positive Development in Frankfurt, Vienna and Graz – Action needed in Lausanne and Linz".
The slide contains small multiple charts to support the message, where Rolf has chosen a line chart to emphasize trends or patterns. The problematic regions mentioned in the title are colored in red; those that made the CEO happy in green.
In chart design it’s good to make things simple, but you certainly should avoid oversimplification. As Einstein said:
"Things should be made as simple as possible, but not any simpler"
Seth Godin presented in his blog The three laws of great graphs:
1. One Story
2. No Bar Charts
Effective chart design rules are simple, but reducing it to this set of 3 rules certainly is an over-oversimplification.
Particularly rule 2 is flawed. Seth details rule 2:
"NO BAR CHARTS
Bar charts are dramatically overrated, primarily because they’re the first choice in many graphing programs.
The problem with bar charts is that they should either be line/area charts (when graphing a change over time, like unemployment rates) or they should be a simple pie chart (when comparing two or three items at the same scale).
Choose Chart Types Intelligently
We are working tightly together with Stephen Few on a new product that helps business users creating effective charts with Excel and are therefore we are quite familiar with Stephen’s design principles.
Its an easy to learn set of rules
1. Determine the relationship you want to display
|Sales in different regions|
|Best selling products|
|Sales in the last 12 months|
|Revenue Actual vs Budget in the last 12 months|
|Support response times|
|Relationship between employee’s heights in inches and their salary|
2. Determine if you want to emphasize individual values or the overall pattern
3. Determine the chart type
Bars and Columns
Bars and Columns
Lines to emphasize the overall trends or pattern
Points connected by lines to slightly emphasize individual values
Columns to emphasize and support comparisons between individual values
Bars and Columns
Lines to emphasize the overall shape of the data
Points connected by lines to slightly emphasize individual data points
Bars and Columns to emphasize individual values
Columns to emphasize individual values
Lines to emphasize the overall shape of he data
Points and a trend line in the form of a scatter plot
Armed with this set of rules you would rule out Seth’s pie chart, and use the bar chart in the appropriated business context.
“With hindsight, it’s easy to look at it with hindsight” – Glen Hoddle
Little did we suspect midway through the season that the Premier League would turn into a 2 horse race. Poor starts by both Man Utd. and Chelsea were transformed into a consistent run of good form which would extend the drama to the very last day of the season.
With one game left to play, the top two were level on points with Manchester having a superior goal difference. If Chelsea could achieve a better result than Manchester, then they would clinch the league in the final game…
The English Premier league currently has 20 teams requiring a total of 380 games per season. The results of sporting leagues are usually displayed in a league table format. During the course of a season we see teams occupy different table positions. The standard table format however leaves out the important historic story of the league.
This is how soccerstats.com shows the final league table.
The final 8 games are summarized as a colors encoded Win Lose chart. The table found at the web site above provides helpful links to each team’s performance and a snapshot in time regarding table position for each month of the league. It is also possible to rank the teams with respect to their home or away performance and overall is a very powerful tool for analyzing statistics of the league. Some historical information is also given with the results for the last 8 games being displayed in the last column.
Statistics are like miniskirts; they give you good ideas but hide the important things.” – Ebbe Skovdahl
However, there are a number of things about the table in that I think could be improved and all of them are centred on the “Last 8” column. The table author is attempting to describe win-lose information graphically and has dedicated approximately one quarter of the width of the table to it. With a quarter of the table dedicated to it, we should expect more than 8 out of 38 games to be described. The author has chosen to invent a chart type which encodes the results using colored squares with more empty space than data. The whole season can easily fit into this width if we choose an appropriate display technique such as a win-lose chart.
My least favorite aspect of the “Last 8” column is the non-standard use of a 1 dimensional plot. I come from a physical science background and so I am used to diagrams telling me certain things in certain ways. One of these things is (in the absence of an axis or some other visual guide) that time should go from left to right! In this 1D plot the knowledge of which way time is going is fundamental. The links at the top of the same table used to break the table down into months, go in chronological order from left to right. This sets up my brain to expect the rest of the table to behave in the same way. So why don’t the last 8 games do the same? Unless you actually have some knowledge about how the season ended, you might not actually realize that time is going from right to left. I happened to know that Liverpool and Arsenal didn’t lose their final games of the season. This made me double check what the table was actually telling me. Without some knowledge of how the Premiership ended I would have interpreted the information presented wrongly. The fact that time is going from right to left isn’t wrong. The fact that the rest of the table is telling me to expect it to go from left to right is.
“Well, Clive, it’s all about the two M’s. Movement and positioning” – Ron Atkinson
So what improvements could we make to the standard table format to get more information into the table? To tell the story of the 2007-2008 league we need to include the historical context.
The Excel table below uses sparklines to summarizes the season for each team in terms of relative positions in the table and a win lose chart for the entire season.
Now we get a feeling for the true drama that occurred during the season. The Position column shows how the each teams position changed over the course of the league. Those of us that followed the 2007-2008 Premiership will be able to look at the performance curves and remember the situation for a given time. For example:
- The lowest point of the season for Man Utd ,in every sense, was when they lost to Man City
- The departure of Jose Mourinho after 8 games was a catalyst for change in Chelsea’s fortunes
“I never make predictions, and I never will” – Paul Gascoigne
It is interesting to directly compare the performance of teams together. Adding an interactive Bumps Chart in allows us to see how Man Utd and Chelsea faired over the season. To compare two team click the sparklines in the ranking table or click the data label on the Bumps Charts.
In the next post I will talk about the techniques used to produce the ineractive ranking table within Excel. Until then why not check out a live web version, published from Excel to our website.